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Islam and Science for Starters

Islam and Science for Starters
Islam and Science for Starters



Sun, Moon, Stars, Planets, Eclipses, Solar System, Night and Day and more

Part 2 of 7

Shariq Ali Khan

In the name of Allah, the Forgiving, the Merciful

In the Quran Allah says:

“I made the moon a light in their midst and the sun a Lamp”

Surah Noah, 71 Ayah 16

The Quran is 1400 years old, and scientists found out much later that the moon has no light of its own and reflects the light of the sun.

So, the sun is a source of light, the moon isn’t. This difference was not known at the time when the Quran came. Allah sent the Quran and made everything.

The sun and the moon are very different

The sun has a lot of energy. It is very big. Its weight keeps it from falling apart. There is a lot of Hydrogen and Helium on the sun, and everything is broken down into very small pieces, smaller than atoms (so called plasma).

The sun is sending out energy in form of light and heat to us and across the solar system. It is a lamp, which means, it is a source of light.

The moon is made of cold and solid rock and has very little energy. It reflects the sun’s light.

“And I made the moon a light in their midst and the sun a lamp”

Surah Noah, 71 Ayah 16

Allah also says about himself:

“…He has ordered the sun and the moon! Each runs for an


Surah Ar-Ra’d, 13 Ayah 2

This is another fact that was not known at the time of the Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him when the Quran was revealed to him.

The Quran is Allah’s last message to us. We should read it, understand it and do what Allah tells us. The sun and the moon are doing it already.

In Surah Ha-Mim, 41 Ayah 10, Allah orders heaven and Earth to come together from smoke 10 Billion years ago: 5 Billion years ago:

Nebula (smoke)

Young star

Young planets


Finally, we can live on the Earth

Moon planet sun

Today, the moon has different stages. This is because the shadow of the Earth covers it from different angles.

It goes from full, over half to less than a quarter of its size and then even smaller. Finally, appears totally. Afterwards it returns again as a tiny sickle. One period like this is called a lunar month

These stages influence life on Earth and the tide of the oceans: Allah has made sun and moon so we can measure time through their movement (Surah Yunus, 10 Ayah 4).

We couldn’t measure time without the sun arid the moon.

The sun is exactly 400 times larger in diameter and also 400 times more far away than the moon. In this way the sun looks just as big from the Earth as the moon.

Therefore solar eclipses are possible on Earth, when the moon comes in between Earth and sun. It is a delicate balance. In a lunar eclipse the shadow of the Earth nearly covers the moon when the Earth moves in between moon and sun. Eclipses are signs of Allah the Almighty.

Eclipses are only possible on Earth and connected with the appearance of intelligent life. Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him) prayed during eclipses. We should do the same.

Here is the graph of a lunar eclipse

Shadow                                                                    sunlight

Allah also described in the Quran 1400 years ago that the sun is moving around the centre of the galaxy just like the moon around the Earth. Until 200 years ago people thought that the sun stands still.


“…the sun and the moon: all swim along, each in its rounded course.”

Surah Al-Anbiyaa, 21 Ayah 33

“It is not permitted to the Sun to catch up the Moon nor can the Night outstrip the Day: each moves along in its orbit.”

Surah Ya-Sin, 36 Ayah 40



Allah ordered the sun and moon

The picture shows us two different models of the solar system, which were popular 300 years ago.

One is from the catholic church, the geocentric view, which says that everything turns around the Earth (left). The other one says that the sun is motionless in the centre, and everything turns around it. That is the heliocentric view which is also wrong. (The Earth moves around the sun, but the sun also moves around the centre of the galaxy).

All bodies move, just like Allah said in the Quran 1400 years ago. Allah knows all, even the unknown.


“He coils night over day and coils day over night”

Surah Az-Zumar, 5 Ayah 5

Allah tells us that the Earth is a ball (sphere) since he coils the night over the day and the day over the night just like a turban is coiled around a head.

The Earth is a ball (sphere) just like a head and the sun’s light can only hit it from one side.

Allah tells us

“It is I who made the sun a shining glory and the moon a light and measured out stages for it so that you might know the number of years and how to count time.”

Surah Yunus, 10 Ayah 4

We know today that without Allah giving us the movement and stages of the sun (day and year and the moon (night and lunar month) we would never have been able to measure time.

Sun and moon serve Allah. We should do that too.

Only now we have found out that…

…the moon reflects the light of the sun and brightens up certain nights in different stages in the shadow of the Earth. The Quran distinguishes the light of the sun and the moon. The Bible doesn’t! Many things depend on this like the fertility of animals and plants, the breeding seasons, eclipses and the tide of the oceans. But the moon is not the light source, not the lamp, but a small light. It is a reflection of the sun as it is described in the Quran 1400 years ago.

Much more is to be discovered and we have to get involved so we can help mankind and nature.

Allah mentions two types of planet-like bodies in the Quran

“So verily I call to witness the bodies (Khunnas) that rise and set”

Surah At-Takwir, Surah 81 Ayah 15/16

“When Joseph said unto his father: O my father! Lo! I saw in a dream eleven planets (Kawakib) and the sun and the moon, I saw them prostrating themselves to me.”

Surah Yusuf, Surah 12 Ayah 4

Every star, like our sun, has planets which turn around it. This is called a solar system.

What does Allah mean by that?

The planets that rise and set are the comets which travel across many different solar systems and return regularly like Haley’s comet in 1997. We can see them for a while and then they are gone for long.

The eleven planets mentioned in the other verse of the Quran are the nine planets of our solar system and two planets that have recently been discovered.

The furthest two common planets have a strange movement. This tells us that their must be more planets disturbing them. They are even thought to be bigger than the commonly known Pluto.

A picture of our solar system with planets a comet and the sun, 11 planets, 2 just discovered after 2000!

Our star, the Sun





Asteroids (formerly Ceres)







Lately discovered Eiris


There are many different types of universal bodies in the Quran

Khunnas, kawakib, tariq, shams, qamar and najm, are the words for heavenly bodies in the Quran.

The Khunnas appear and disappear. They are the comets. The kawakib are planets, like our Earth. Najm is a star. Tarig is a very bright night-or morning-star, in fact a planet, like Venus. Shams is the sun. Qamar the moon.

These bodies are clearly distinguished by their appearance and roles in the Quran. The Quran is 1400 years old but the discoveries it describes are new. The Quran is the truth.

Summary 1

In the Quran Allah has revealed details about the sun, the moon, the planets, the comets, and the stars, which are all his creation.

There are details about the light of the sun, the light of the moon and the difference between sun and moon,” their movement, the count of time, the stages of the moon, the shape of the Earth and the making of day and night. All these are Allah’s signs for men so they can believe in him.

There are also verses about the comets, the structure and movement of the solar system and the number of planets.

Summary: 2

These are scientific discoveries of the last centuries. Scientists have discovered these phenomena using strong telescopes invented less than 300 years ago.

The Quran was revealed to the Prophet Mohammed (peace be on him) 1400 years ago at a time when telescopes, spaceships and satellites did not exist. It covers many aspects of natural phenomena in modern science.

The Quran is a revelation from Allah, the Creator.

These are only a few of Allah’s signs. There are many more…

There is no God but Allah

and Mohammed is his Messenger

Dr. Shariq Ali khan
M. Sc. Neurophysiology and Physiology of the auditory senses from Goethe University of Frankfurt (Germany) lecturing on the scientific signs of the Quran for various publications

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